6 Lessons from Eating Together

Our church recently tried something different – we ate together on a Sunday morning as part of our service.  Before you say, “that sounds crazy”, let me back up a little.  We wanted to connect the Lord’s Supper (Jesus celebrating Passover on the night He was betrayed) with our traditional Communion service we experience today (usually a small cup and wafer).  So, we tried something new – we gathered together on a Sunday morning around tables, sang songs, prayed, read scripture, learned about the Passover meal, shared in a meal together, experienced Communion, shared testimonies, and prayed for the sick.  You can read more about why we went down this road, by reading: “5 Reasons Why Our Church Is Eating Together Sunday Morning.”

After reflecting on this event, we have some lessons from eating together that we’d like to share with you.

Lesson #1: Don’t be afraid to take the risk.

If you want to move forward, you have to take on risk.  From what I know, this is the first time such an endeavor has been tried within our movement of churches.  It would have been easy to wait for someone else to try it, but avoiding risk will stunt growth every time.  All risks will end in failure or success; however, both will bring you forward.  Failure doesn’t mean timing wasn’t right, it simply means there is more to learn.  Success doesn’t mean we know everything, it simply means we are on the right track.  In any case, we learned that eating together on a Sunday morning is a risk, but it was a risk we were willing to take.  As a result, we grew as a body of believers.

Lesson #2: Teaching, promoting and communicating are all keys to success.

This cannot be underestimated.  In fact, I’m not sure if they can even be over-done.  This communion experience was birthed out of a Sunday Night study and discussion on Communion.  The weeks and months that followed included Church Board discussions, further Sunday Morning sermons, related topics, blog posts, social media posts, and even one-on-one conversations.  With that said, if there was one thing I wish we did more of before the event, it would be even more communication.  People want to know the benefits of risk, and everyone processes their understanding on different timelines.

Lesson #3: Don’t let the few who won’t participate, decide if you will take the risk.

Although we tried to be optimistic, we knew it may happen – some just didn’t participate, or want to be a part of something new.  It’s true, we could have always taught more, promoted more, or provided more opportunity to ask questions.  At the end of the day, however, some just refused to listen to the potential benefits of doing something new.  My prayer will continue to be: “God, help them see the Gospel before their tradition, so that their tradition is fueled by the Gospel, and not the other way around.”  Our second lesson was clear – we didn’t let the few who didn’t want to participate decide whether or we pursued God’s call.  We are all on different journeys and we need to respect each other while moving forward.  At the very least, it will be a great reason to try this experience again in an effort to give everyone the chance to participate in the future.

Lesson #4: Completely changing a traditional experience can help in spiritual growth.

While new experiences can be uncomfortable, they often force us to put tradition aside.  When we lay aside the “normal” way of doing something, the usual routine becomes a whole new experience.  In this case, Communion took on a new form and that new form created an environment of spiritual growth.  It wasn’t just a meal, it was an experience that linked our tradition of communion with the Jewish Passover and Jesus’ Last Supper with his disciples.  Our communion service was successful because it was so different from the tradition that people allowed for a new connection to be made – it made spiritual growth a reality.

Lesson #5: The spirit of unity must be the central focus.

Out of all of the comments and feedback we received, “unity” continued to be a strong theme.  When Paul discussed Communion in 1 Corinthians, one of his concerns was the lack of unity among the Church.  Unfortunately, our Communion tradition normally expects us to separately examine ourselves before God, before partaking of individual cups and wafers in our individual seats.  While we commune in one building, the practice is very individualistic.  By eating together, like the early Church would have done, the concept of Communion encouraged the church family to partake in the experience together and not separately.  It also encouraged both families and couples, young and old, male and female to join together in unity.  The spirit of unity was undeniable.

Lesson #6: Expect the unexpected.

In a natural fashion, we had planned for a few people to share a few testimonies after we shared in communion.  To get the ball started, we asked one person to think about what they could share before the morning started.  What followed that testimony, however, was amazing!  Several people, from different generations and situations deeply shared about how God has challenged them, strengthen them or otherwise impacted them.  The key for us was to make sure this moment was as free as possible.  I was willing to plan to a degree, but God was welcomed to take over at any moment.  As these testimonies progressed, God took over, and we started to pray for the sick.  The final call was for anyone dealing with sickness, or wanted to stand in for someone dealing with sickness.  Nearly everyone gathered around the altar and was prayed for and anointed with oil. It was a powerful moment! Expect the unexpected!

 

This new experience was a huge success for us, and I would recommend any assembly to give it a try.  If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment or send a message (andrewholm@gmail.com), and I would love to help you in any way!

The Fellowship – The Early Church (Part 4)

A devoted church, is a church in fellowship together.  In this series, we’ll explore what Jesus said, what the early church did, and how we, the church, can become more devoted.

What JESUS said about fellowship…
Jesus declared that he would build his church on the rock that Peter stood on – the faithful ones who believed and followed him…

“[Jesus asked], But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” And Jesus answered him, “Blessed are you, Simon, Son of Jonah! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven.  And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it…”[i]

Jesus spoke of building his CHURCH.  He used the Greek word ecclesia, meaning “the called out ones.”  Therefore, the Church consists of those who are called out to believe and follow in faith.  Jesus is calling all of us[ii], and so those who choose to believe and follow become the Church that Jesus is building.

Jesus even prayed for those who would believe in the future.  Jesus prayed, “I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message…”  But he didn’t stop there, Jesus prayed that through UNITY and LOVE, others would and will know that He indeed was the Son of God.[iii]

The Church, as Jesus taught, is a group of believers who not only follow in His footsteps, but also bond together in unity and love so that others would believe and follow as well.  For Jesus, the Church is about being in fellowship together.

 

What the EARLY CHURCH did…
The early church devoted themselves to the fellowship.[iv]  The fellowship was who they were.  The early church made up a group of believers, following after Christ’s example who gathered together in unity and love.  Paul wrote of this when talking to the church in Ephesus:

“For through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father.  So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God, built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone, in whom the whole structure, being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord.  In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God by the Spirit.”[v]

Because of their common belief, values and connection with God, the members of the Church became uniquely connected.  With Christ as their cornerstone, they were joined together by the Spirit to become a dwelling place for God.  As a result, the early Church devoted themselves to developing this fellowship with one another.

Check out this interesting picture of the early Christian life…

“The Christians are distinguished from other men neither by country, nor language, nor the customs which they observe.  They display to us, nevertheless, a wonderful and confessedly striking method of life.  They dwell in their own countries, but simply as sojourners.  As citizens, they share all things with others, and yet endure all things as if foreigners. Every foreign land is to them as their native country, and every land of their birth as a land of strangers.  They are in the flesh, but they do not live after the flesh.  They pass their days on earth, but they are citizens of heaven.  They obey the prescribed laws, and at the same time surpass the laws by their lives.  They love all men, and are persecuted by all. They are insulted, and repay the insult with honor.  They do good, yet are punished as evil-doers…”[vi]

No doubt this is an optimistic picture of early Christian life; however, it certainly gives a clear picture of what was expected of early Christians.

 

What EARLY PENTECOSTALS did…
Early Pentecostals really embraced the idea of being a part of a spiritual family.  A Pentecostal believer wasn’t simply a part of an assembly; rather, they were a part of a family – and they were devoted to making sure everyone felt a part of it.

One of the ways Pentecostals create a family atmosphere, is by calling each other “brother” or “sister”.  No matter ones leadership role, age, or spiritual maturity, this prefix is used to bring everyone together.  This was especially true among early Pentecostals, and it brought a sense of community to believers.

Moreover, the Pentecostal view of fellowship can be seen in their view and understanding of God.  Steven Land labels this understanding as Eschatological Trinitarian Fellowship.[vii]  Let’s break that down.  Their fellowship is eschatological (meaning “focused on Christ’s return”) because they believe they are a part of the body of Christ and their work, as a fellowship, is directly involved in preparing for the return of Christ.  Their fellowship is Trinitarian (meaning “God in three persons: Father, Son & Spirit) because they believe they are in a relationship with the Father, as the body of Christ (Son), while living in the Spirit.  As a result, Pentecostals are driven by the fact that Christ is returning, to be a part of a fellowship based on a godly relationship with the Father, through the Son and in the Spirit.

 

What the CHURCH TODAY needs to do…
Jesus, the early church, and early Pentecostals gave a lot of attention towards being a fellowship.  A believer was not only a believer personally with God, but also in community with God and each other.  As a result, believers become united together in faith, belief, finance, community, and relationship.

In our culture, however, tradition often outweighs biblical support.  The question Christians need to ask today is this: will we base our fellowship on scripture or culture?  This is especially true for our public gatherings.  If we based our gatherings (services, socials, etc…) on scripture, not culture, would our meetings look like they do today?

Perhaps we should re-evaluate the way we conduct ourselves as a fellowship.  Maybe we need to regain what has been lost, and remove what has been added without warrant.  In either case, we need to be a people who are eager to be a part of the fellowship!

 


[i] Matthew 16:15-18, ESV.

[ii] 1 Timothy 2:3-4.

[iii] John 17:20-23, 26.

[iv] Acts 2:42

[v] Ephesians 2:18-22.

[vi] Henry Sheldon, History of the Christian Church The Early Church, vol. 1 (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1988), 293.

[vii] Steven Jack Land, Pentecostal Spirituality (Cleveland: CPT Press, 2010), 205-206.

Living to Learn – The Early Church (Part 3)

A devoted church, is a church who is willing to learn and teach.  In this series, we’ll explore what Jesus said, what the early church did, and how we, the church, can become more devoted.

There are two kinds of people involved in learning – someone who is receiving information, and someone who is giving information.  Quite often we call these people the mentoree and the mentor.

What JESUS said about learning…

Jesus did a lot of teaching throughout his ministry; however, sometimes we forget to study his life before his ministry started.  Luke is the only gospel writer who gave us a picture of his early childhood.

…the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom.  And the favor of God was upon him.  Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover.  And when  he was twelve years old, they went up according to custom.  And when the feast ended, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem.  His parents did not know it, but supposing him to be in the group they went a day’s journey, but then they began to search for him among their relatives and acquaintances, and when they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem, searching for him.  After three days, they found him in the temple, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking questions.  And all who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers.  And when his parents saw him, they were astonished.  And he said to them, ‘Why were we looking for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?’ And they did not understand the saying that he spoke to them.  And he went down with them and came to Nazareth and was submissive to them.  And his mother treasured up all these things in her heart.  And Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature and in favor with God and man.[i]

There are a number of things Luke wants us to see here.  First, there is a human side to Jesus.  He was a man who grew.  He didn’t just appear; he was a child who grew into the person he needed to become.

Second, Luke uses the catch-phrase, “he grew” to isolate how Jesus grew.  Verses 40 and 52 mark the beginning and end of the story.  Jesus grew by Luke calling him a child to being called Jesus, from being filled with wisdom to increasing in wisdom, and from being in favor with God to being in favor with God and man.[ii]

Third, it’s interesting to note how Jesus was submissive to his parents.  As a child, it seems as though Jesus knew he was the Son of God.  He said, “did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?”[iii]  When his parents came for him, however, he submitted himself to their leadership.  He knew, that at this place in his life, it was important to obey his earthly parents.

Jesus was a human who grew in size, maturity, wisdom and in favor with God and man.  Even though his heavenly Father had future plans for him, he remained faithful to the leadership of his earthly parents.  He was willing to learn; he was both a mentoree and mentor.

What the EARLY CHURCH did…

The early church was devoted to the apostles’ teaching.[iv]  Peter described this devotion as craving after spiritual milk just as a newborn baby craves it’s milk.[v]  He seemed to understand spiritual growth and spiritual learning in terms of a natural hunger.  A baby doesn’t have to think about wanting their milk – they just want it.  The early church understood spiritual growth as a natural desire to want to grow.

Learning took place in a number of ways.  Being an oral culture, they listened to teaching, memorized scripture, and were often involved in intense discipleship.  They even learned from the generations before them.  One author makes this connection when studying early Christian occupations.  Early Christians followed in their father’s footsteps and chose humble, honest and hard working jobs (ie. tent-making, fishermen, or carpenters)  because “God hates the slothful.”[vi]   The early Church had a natural desire to learn and teach.

What EARLY PENTECOSTALS did…

Early Pentecostals believed in a spiritual journey of learning and experience.  Steven Land explains this in a sort of divine participation.  They experienced three foundational experiences: (1) new birth (justification); (2) spiritual growth (sanctification); and, (3) empowerment (Spirit Baptism).  They didn’t just experience these three aspects of their spiritual journey, they experienced “life as part of a biblical drama of participation in God’s history.”[vii]  Their desire to learn and teach each other was based on a desire to participate in God’s activity among them.

Early Pentecostal pastors also relied on the Spirit for their learning needs.  In relation to what we know today, they relied less on “academic learning” and more on “Spirit learning.”  Because they understood the Spirit to be very active among them, the Spirit gave them the instruction they needed.  Whether it was a lack of resources, or if they truly believed the spirited provided what they needed, early Pentecostal pastors had a desire to learn and relied more on the Spirit than academic education to do so.

What the CHURCH TODAY needs to do…

We need to be people who both learn and teach.  If we do so, we’ll bring unity, purpose, confidence and humility to our assemblies.  Learning and experiencing life together brings unity to the body of Christ.  Likewise, when the body gathers together, we share in each other’s gifts.  As we do so, we bring purpose to what God has uniquely gifted us with.  Learning and teaching also aids in confidence and humility.  If we’re able to teach and share something with others, it builds confidence in how God can use us.  On the other hand, if we’re willing to learn from others, it allows us to stay humble.  A growing and devoted church, is a church who is willing to learn and teach; including mentorees and those who mentor.

Along the way, academic and spiritual learning both play a part.  God helps us understand scripture and his will by speaking to us through the Spirit.  On the other hand, academic learning helps us set a frame work, ensuring our emotion doesn’t take us off course.   Pastors should be educated to think and defend theology while encouraged to have a relationship with God leading to vision and passion.

We need to be a people who are eager to learn and teach!

Will we be as devoted as the early Church was to learning and teaching?



[i] Luke 2:40-52, ESV.

[ii]Comparison of Luke 2:40 & 2:52.

[iii] Luke 2:49b.

[iv] Acts 2:42.

[v] 1 Peter 2:1-2.

[vi] Henry Sheldon, History of the Christian Church: The Early Church, vol. 1 (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1988), 304.

[vii] Steven Jack Land, Pentecostal Spirituality (Cleveland: CPT Press, 2010), 67, 75, 82, 84.

Breaking Bread – The Early Church (Part 2)

A devoted church, is a church who eats together.  In this series, we’ll explore what Jesus said, what the early church did, and how we, the church, can become more devoted.

The idea of breaking bread has two implications: partaking in communion and eating together.  For the early Church, these usually occurred together.

What JESUS said about eating together…

Jesus did a lot of socializing.  Much like our culture, this included eating together.  We can see an example of this in Luke 19, when Jesus ended up becoming the guest of Zacchaeus:

[Jesus] entered Jericho and was passing through.  And behold, there was a man named Zacchaeus. He was a chief tax collector and was rich.  And he was seeking to see who Jesus was, but on account of the crowd he could not, because he was small in stature.  So he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him, for he was about to pass that way.  And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up and said to him, “Zacchaeus, hurry and come down, for I must stay at your house today.”  So he hurried and came down and received him joyfully.  And when they saw it, they all grumbled, “He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.”  And Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, “Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor. And if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I restore it fourfold.”  And Jesus said to him, “Today salvation has come to this house, since he also is a son of Abraham.  For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost.”[i]

Let’s briefly look at this.  First, Zacchaeus was a chief tax-collector[ii].  As a result, he wasn’t well liked by the general public and quite rich.  It’s safe to say that’s probably why Zacchaeus had a hard time seeing among a crowd.

Secondly, Jesus made the first move.  Jesus didn’t pass Zacchaeus waiting for him to speak, “he looked up”[iii] and asked to be a guest at his house.  Jesus associated himself with someone who was rejected by most people.

Thirdly, salvation was brought to a household because of their generosity.   That generosity, however, was sparked because Jesus choose to spent time with them.  He socialized and ate with a “sinner” and as a result, Zacchaeus’ whole mindset was transformed.

Jesus also taught his disciples to remember Him by sharing in bread and wine.  Shortly after the Zacchaeus story, Luke records:

And when the hour came, he reclined at table, and the apostles with him.  And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.  For I tell you I will not eat ituntil it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God… And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”  And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.”[iv]

Jesus “reclined” with his disciples for a meal before he continued with the symbolic portion of their last supper together.  While Jesus socialized with those he associated himself with, they both shared in a meal and prepared for the coming significance of the cross.  They broke bread together.

What the EARLY CHURCH did…

The early Church devoted themselves to breaking bread on a regular basis.[v]  That said, Paul had to do some correcting on the matter while writing to the church in Corinth:

When you come together as a church, I hear that there are divisions among you…When you come together, it is not the Lord’s supper that you eat.  For in eating, each one goes ahead with his own meal. One goes hungry, another gets drunk.  What! Do you not have houses to eat and drink in? Or do you despise the church of God and humiliate those who have nothing?[vi]

Unity was the issue.  Instead of eating together, they ate on their own terms.  As a result, some were hungry while others had more than enough.   If there was unity, the church would have honored God by eating and sharing together.

It seems as though the early Church understood the last supper to be a Passover meal.  In remembrance of Christ, they too were “coming together”[vii] to break bread.  This also seems to be closely related to hospitality – an Old Testament principle with integral teachings in the New Testament.[viii]  The key here was inviting people into their homes to share in a meal which often included remembering Christ.  A mixture of Zacchaeus hospitality and scared communion; creating unity and remembering Christ.

What EARLY PENTECOSTALS did…

Pentecostalism started from a desire to leave organized religions.  Their goal was to spread the “good news” because they believed the fresh outpour of the Spirit was a true reminder of the imminent return of Christ.  How did they do that? Through friendships, social gatherings and divine participation.  Early Pentecostals participated together in unity during their services while often sharing the slogan “all are welcome”.

Eating together often meant three things: (1) celebrating with God; (2) celebrating with the faithful; and (3) celebrating the invitation.[ix]  For Pentecostals, partaking in communion and sharing in a meal helped them to be thankful for what Christ did, socialize with other believers, and present an invitation for others to experience salvation.  They were devoted to this process.

What the CHURCH TODAY needs to do…

I think we have a lot to learn from history.  Breaking bread should be seen as an activity which encourages unity.  Perhaps the best thing we could do is work on integrating hospitality and sacred time with God.  We need to make sure we are an inviting people who enjoy spending time with fellow believers, while remembering what Christ did for us.

So where does this leave us?  Perhaps we can start by thinking of ways we can make social times more sacred, and sacred times more social.  If we work towards integrating unity, our relationship with God and hospitality, we’ll start to experience what it actually means to break bread together.

Our assembly meets for a social and Bible Study Sunday nights, shares in communion once a month, gathers for socials throughout the year, and hosts campfires during the summer.  The challenge always remains – to make social times more sacred, and sacred times more social.

Will we be as devoted as the early Church was and break bread together?


[i] Luke 19:1-10, ESV.

[ii] Chief Tax Collectors – Would have collected from the extra taken from the tax collectors under them.

[iii] Luke 19:5.

[iv] Luke 22:14-16, 19-20.

[v] Acts 2:42; 20:7.

[vi] 1 Cor 11:17-22.

[vii] I Cor 11:18, 33.

[viii] James I. Packer, Merrill C. Tenney, William White, Jr., eds., Daily Life in Bible Times (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982), 109.

[ix] Wolfgang Vondey, “Pentecostal ecclesiology and Eucharistic hospitality: toward a systematic and ecumenical account of the church,” Pneuma 32, no. 1 (January 1, 2010), 49.

People Who Pray – The Early Church (Part 1)

A devoted church, is a praying church.  In this series, we’ll explore what Jesus said, what the early church did, and how we, the church, can become more devoted

What JESUS said about prayer…

Jesus taught his disciples how to pray.  Before giving them a prayer model, he made two comments.  First, there is no need to pray in public places to be heard by those around them.  God hears our prayers in the secret of our hearts.  Second, make sure you don’t use “empty phrases”.  In other words, simple and short is always better than wordy and long.  After all, the “Father knows what you need before you ask him.”[i]  Jesus continued His teaching by giving his disciples a prayer model.  The model we all know well:

“Our Father in heaven, hallowed be Your name.
Your kingdom come, Your will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors
And lead us not into temptation,
But deliver us from evil.”[ii]

This model is all about praying for God’s will to be accomplished while his followers are taken care of.  The key here is “[God’s] will be done.”  Something else to note is that there are no singular pronouns in the prayer.  The prayer doesn’t start with “My Father” or “His Father”, it starts with “Our Father”.  The model includes God’s will for all of us together as one Church body.  Jesus was teaching how the Church needs to be devoted to prayer.

What the EARLY CHURCH did…

The early Church was devoted to prayer.[iii]  This is not only seen in scripture, but also in other early documents like The Didache – a document referring to the teaching of the twelve Apostles.  This first/second century document states that a Christian should say the Lord’s prayer three times daily.[iv]

By the fourth century, tradition called for a Christian to pray seven times daily.  This seemed to differ based on whether a Christian was home or not.  Without question, however, a Christian should pray at rising, during the lighting of the evening candle, at bed time, and midnight.[v]

As Christianity developed, scripted prayers became a common way to help a Christians engage in prayer.  Many main-line denominations continue to use prayer books and scripted prayers today.

What EARLY PENTECOSTALS did…

For early Pentecostals, prayer was one of the most significant activities.  To pray, meant to open themselves to what the Spirit is doing among them.  Being a denomination that was built on the activity of the Spirit, prayer became a major aspect of Pentecostal spirituality.

As a part of their spiritual life, early Pentecostals prayed in the Spirit.  Steven Jack Land[vi] suggests that there are three ways early Pentecostals did this:

1) With words known to others – letting the Spirit guide their words as they prayed

2) With no words – groaning, crying and laughing in response to what the Spirit was doing.

3) With words unknown to others – praying in tongues.  Using a prayer language to speak to God.

Praying in the Spirit was also a part of the believer’s daily walk with God.  Alice Garrigus[vii], the Pentecostal pioneer of Newfoundland, was praying when she read The Christian’s Secret of a Happy Life.[viii]  She wrote,  “…often on my knees, eyes blinded with tears praying fervently, ‘O God, if there be such an experience, won’t you bring me into it?'”[ix]

It’s safe to say early Pentecostals relied on prayer.  It wasn’t only a significant part of the church service, but also the heart of the believer.  They were devoted to it!

What the CHURCH TODAY needs to do…

As we explore what those before us did, it’s important for us to ask: “are we devoted to prayer in this generation? Do we use the Lord’s prayer as our prayer model? Is prayer the center of our lives?”  If we want to see God move, then we must first pray for God’s will to be accomplished; and second, pray for God to supply our needs and the needs of others along the way.

Let’s commit to a private prayer life and to a praying Church – a Church who prioritizes prayer, meets regularly to pray, and realizes that prayer always precedes something beautiful.  If your church holds weekly prayer meetings or pre-service prayer times, attending these, might be a great way to start placing prayer as a priority.

Will we be devoted people who pray?

 


[i] Matthew 6:5-8, ESV.

[ii] Matthew 6:9-13, ESV.

[iii] Acts 2:42, ESV.

[iv] Maxwell Standiforth, trans., Early Christian Writings: the Apostolic Fathers (penguin Classics) (Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics, 1968), 231.

[v] Henry Chadwick, The Early Church (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967), 272.

[vi] Steven Jack Land, Pentecostal Spirituality (Cleveland: CPT Press, 2010), 166-172.

[vii] About Garrigus (http://www.heritage.nf.ca/society/pentecostal.html), Writings by Garrigus (http://www.mun.ca/rels/pent/).

[viii] Hannah Whitall Smith, The Christian’s Secret of a Happy Life (Uhrichsville: Barbour Publishing, 2010)

[ix]Alice B. Garrigus, “Walking In The King’s Highway” Chapter 4, Memorial University, http://www.mun.ca/rels/pent/texts/king/king4.html (accessed January 4, 2013).